Make your own free website on Tripod.com
-->

kshWeb Korn Shell 93
User Manual

 

kshWeb Home | ksh Applications, Tools, Utilities | Obtain Korn Shell | Shell News Groups | Publications | Links
Korn Shell Jobs | Tip-O-The-Day | Visitor Supplied Scripts | GuestBook | Registration and Download | MicroEMACS

SH(1)			USER COMMANDS 			SH(1)

NAME

sh, rsh - shell, the standard/restricted command and programming language

SYNOPSIS

sh [ ±abcefhikmnoprstuvxCD ] [ -R file ] [ ±o option ] . . . [ - ] [ arg . . . ]
rsh [ ±abcefhikmnoprstuvxCD ] [ -R file ] [ ±o option ] . . . [ - ] [ arg . . . ]

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Definitions.
Commands.
Variable Assignments.
Comments.
Aliasing.
Tilde Substitution.
Command Substitution.
Arithmetic Substitution.
Process Substitution.
Parameter Expansion.
Field Splitting.
File Name Generation.
Quoting.
Arithmetic Evaluation.
Prompting.
Conditional Expressions.
Input/Output.
Environment.
Functions.
Discipline Functions.
Jobs.
Signals.
Execution.
Command Re-entry.
In-line Editing Options.
Key Bindings.
Emacs Editing Mode.
Vi Editing Mode.
Built-in Commands.
Invocation.

DESCRIPTION

Sh  is a command and programming language that executes commands read from a terminal or a file. Rsh  is a restricted version of the standard command interpreter sh; it is used to set up login names and execution environments whose capabilities are more controlled than those of the standard shell. See Invocation  below for the meaning of arguments to the shell.
Definitions.
A metacharacter  is one of the following characters:

; & ( ) | < > new-line space tab

A blank  is a tab or a space. An identifier  is a sequence of letters, digits, or underscores starting with a letter or underscore. Identifiers are used as components of variable  names. A vname  is a sequence of one or more identifiers separated by a . and optionally preceded by a .. Vnames are used as function and variable names. A word  is a sequence of characters  from the character set defined by the current locale, excluding non-quoted metacharacters.

A command  is a sequence of characters in the syntax of the shell language. The shell reads each command and carries out the desired action either directly or by invoking separate utilities. A built-in command is a command that is carried out by the shell itself without creating a separate process. Some commands are built-in purely for convenience and are not documented here. Built-ins that cause side effects in the shell environment and built-ins that are found before performing a path search (see Execution  below) are documented here. For historical reasons, some of these built-ins behave differently than other built-ins and are called special built-ins.

Commands.
A simple-command  is a list of variable assignments (see VariableAssignments  below) or a sequence of blank  separated words which may be preceded by a list of variable assignments (see Environment  below). The first word specifies the name of the command to be executed. Except as specified below, the remaining words are passed as arguments to the invoked command. The command name is passed as argument 0 (see exec(2)). The value  of a simple-command is its exit status; 0-255 if it terminates normally; 256+signum  if it terminates abnormally (the name of the signal corresponding to the exit status can be obtained via the -l option of the kill  built-in utility).

A pipeline  is a sequence of one or more commands  separated by |. The standard output of each command but the last is connected by a pipe(2) to the standard input of the next command. Each command, except possibly the last, is run as a separate process; the shell waits for the last command to terminate. The exit status of a pipeline is the exit status of the last command. Each pipeline can be preceded by the reserved word ! which causes the exit status of the pipeline to become 0 if the exit status of the last command is non-zero, and 1 if the exit status of the last command is 0.

A list  is a sequence of one or more pipelines separated by ;, &, |&, &&, or | |, and optionally terminated by ;, &, or |&. Of these five symbols, ;, &, and |& have equal precedence, which is lower than that of && and | |. The symbols && and | | also have equal precedence. A semicolon (;) causes sequential execution of the preceding pipeline; an ampersand (&) causes asynchronous execution of the preceding pipeline (i.e., the shell does not  wait for that pipeline to finish). The symbol |& causes asynchronous execution of the preceding pipeline with a two-way pipe established to the parent shell; the standard input and output of the spawned pipeline can be written to and read from by the parent shell by applying the redirection operators <& and >& with arg p to commands and by using -p option of the built-in commands read and print described later. The symbol &&| | ) causes the list  following it to be executed only if the preceding pipeline returns a zero (non-zero) value. One or more new-lines may appear in a list  instead of a semicolon, to delimit a command.

A command  is either a simple-command or one of the following. Unless otherwise stated, the value returned by a command is that of the last simple-command executed in the command.

for vname in word  . . .  ] ;do list  ;done
Each time a for command is executed, vname  is set to the next word  taken from the in word  list. If in word  . . . is omitted, then the for command executes the do list  once for each positional parameter that is set starting from 1 (see ParameterExpansion below). Execution ends when there are no more words in the list.
for ((expr1  ] ;expr2  ] ;expr3  ] )) ;do list  ;done
The arithmetic expression expr1 is evaluated first (see ArithmeticEvaluation below). The arithmetic expression expr2 is repeatedly evaluated until it evaluates to zero and when non-zero, list is executed and the arithmetic expression expr3 evaluated. If any expression is omitted, then it behaves as if it evaluated to 1.
select vname in word  . . .  ] ;do list  ;done
A select command prints on standard error (file descriptor 2) the set of words, each preceded by a number. If in word  . . . is omitted, then the positional parameters starting from 1 are used instead (see ParameterExpansion  below). The PS3 prompt is printed and a line is read from the standard input. If this line consists of the number of one of the listed words, then the value of the variable vname  is set to the word  corresponding to this number. If this line is empty, the selection list is printed again. Otherwise the value of the variable vname  is set to null. The contents of the line read from standard input is saved in the variable REPLY. The list  is executed for each selection until a break  or end-of-file  is encountered. If the REPLY variable is set to null  by the execution of list, then the selection list is printed before displaying the PS3 prompt for the next selection.
case word  in [  [ ( ]pattern  [  | pattern   ] . . . ) list  ;;  ] . . . esac
A case command executes the list  associated with the first pattern  that matches word. The form of the patterns is the same as that used for file-name generation (see FileNameGeneration  below). The ;; operator causes execution of case to terminate. If ;& is used in place of ;; the next subsequent list, if any, is executed.
if list  ;then list elif list  ;then list   ] . . . [  ;else list   ] ;fi
The list  following if is executed and, if it returns a zero exit status, the list  following the first then is executed. Otherwise, the list  following elif is executed and, if its value is zero, the list  following the next then is executed. Failing each successive elif list , the else list  is executed. If the if list  has non-zero exit status and there is no else list, then the if command returns a zero exit status.
while list  ;do list  ;done
until list  ;do list  ;done
A while command repeatedly executes the while list  and, if the exit status of the last command in the list is zero, executes the do list; otherwise the loop terminates. If no commands in the do list  are executed, then the while command returns a zero exit status; until may be used in place of while to negate the loop termination test.
((expression ))

The expression  is evaluated using the rules for arithmetic evaluation described below. If the value of the arithmetic expression is non-zero, the exit status is 0, otherwise the exit status is 1.
(list )

Execute list  in a separate environment. Note, that if two adjacent open parentheses are needed for nesting, a space must be inserted to avoid evaluation as an arithmetic command as described above.
{ list ;}

list  is simply executed. Note that unlike the metacharacters ( and ), { and } are reserved words and must occur at the beginning of a line or after a ; in order to be recognized.
[[ expression  ]]

Evaluates expression  and returns a zero exit status when expression  is true. See ConditionalExpressions  below, for a description of expression.
function varname  { list  ;}
varname  () { list  ;}
Define a function which is referenced by varname. A function whose varname  contains a . is called a discipline function and the portion of the varname  preceding the last . must refer to an existing variable. The body of the function is the list  of commands between { and }. A function defined with the function varname  syntax can also be used as an argument to the . special built-in command to get the equivalent behavior as if the varname () syntax were used to define it. (See Functions  below.)
timepipeline   ]

If pipeline  is omitted the user and system time for the current shell and completed child processes is printed on standard error. Otherwise, pipeline  is executed and the elapsed time as well as the user and system time are printed on standard error.

The following reserved words are recognized as reserved only when they are the first word of a command and are not quoted:

if then else elif fi case esac for while until do done { } function select time [[ ]] !

Variable Assignments.
One or more variable assignments can start a simple command or can be arguments to the typeset, export, or readonly special built-in commands. The syntax for an assignment  is of the form:

varname =word 
varname [word ]=word 
No space is permitted between varname  and the = or between = and word .
varname =(assign_list )
No space is permitted between varname  and the =. An assign_list  can be one of the following:

word  ...
Indexed array assignment.
[word ]=word  . . .
Associative array assignment.
assignment  . . .
Nested variable assignment.
typesetoptions ] assignment  . . .
Nested variable assignment. Multiple assignments can be specified by separating each of them with a ;.

Comments.
A word beginning with # causes that word and all the following characters up to a new-line to be ignored.
Aliasing.
The first word of each command is replaced by the text of an alias if an alias for this word has been defined. An alias name consists of any number of characters excluding metacharacters, quoting characters, file expansion characters, parameter expansion and command substitution characters, and =. The replacement string can contain any valid shell script including the metacharacters listed above. The first word of each command in the replaced text, other than any that are in the process of being replaced, will be tested for aliases. If the last character of the alias value is a blank  then the word following the alias will also be checked for alias substitution. Aliases can be used to redefine built-in commands but cannot be used to redefine the reserved words listed above. Aliases can be created and listed with the alias command and can be removed with the unalias command.

Aliasing  is performed when scripts are read, not while they are executed. Therefore, for an alias to take effect, the alias definition command has to be executed before the command which references the alias is read.

The following aliases are compiled into the shell but can be unset or redefined:

autoload='typeset -fu'
command='command '
fc=hist
float='typeset -E'
functions='typeset -f'
hash='alias -t - -'
history='hist -l'
integer='typeset -i'
nameref='typeset -n'
nohup='nohup '
r='hist -s'
redirect='command exec'
stop='kill -s STOP'
suspend='kill -s STOP $$'
times='{ { time;} 2>&1;}'
type='whence -v'

Tilde Substitution.
After alias substitution is performed, each word is checked to see if it begins with an unquoted ~. For tilde substitution, word  also refers to the word  portion of parameter expansion (see ParameterExpansion  below). If it does, then the word up to a / is checked to see if it matches a user name in the password database (often the /etc/passwd file). If a match is found, the ~ and the matched login name are replaced by the login directory of the matched user. If no match is found, the original text is left unchanged. A ~ by itself, or in front of a /, is replaced by $HOME. A ~ followed by a + or - is replaced by the value of $PWD and $OLDPWD respectively.

In addition, when expanding a variable assignment, tilde substitution is attempted when the value of the assignment begins with a ~, and when a ~ appears after a :. The : also terminates a ~ login name.

Command Substitution.
The standard output from a command enclosed in parentheses preceded by a dollar sign ( $( ) ) or a pair of grave accents ( ` ` ) may be used as part or all of a word; trailing new-lines are removed. In the second (obsolete) form, the string between the quotes is processed for special quoting characters before the command is executed (see Quoting  below). The command substitution  $( cat file )  can be replaced by the equivalent but faster  $( <file ) .
Arithmetic Substitution.
An arithmetic expression enclosed in double parentheses preceded by a dollar sign ( $(( )) ) is replaced by the value of the arithmetic expression within the double parentheses.
Process Substitution.
This feature is only available on versions of the UNIX operating system that support the /dev/fd directory for naming open files. Each command argument of the form <(list ) or >(list ) will run process list asynchronously connected to some file in /dev/fd. The name of this file will become the argument to the command. If the form with > is selected then writing on this file will provide input for list. If < is used, then the file passed as an argument will contain the output of the list process. For example,

paste <(cut -f1 file1) <(cut -f3 file2) | tee >(process1) >(process2)

cuts fields 1 and 3 from the files file1 and file2 respectively, pastes the results together, and sends it to the processes process1 and process2, as well as putting it onto the standard output. Note that the file, which is passed as an argument to the command, is a UNIX pipe(2) so programs that expect to lseek(2) on the file will not work.

Parameter Expansion.
A parameter  is a variable, one or more digits, or any of the characters *, @, #, ?, -, $, and !\ . A variable  is denoted by a vname. To create a variable whose vname  contains a ., a variable whose vname  consists of everything before the last . must already exist. A variable  has a value  and zero or more attributes. Variables  can be assigned values  and attributes by using the typeset  special built-in command. The attributes supported by the shell are described later with the typeset  special built-in command. Exported variables pass values and attributes to the environment.

The shell supports both indexed and associative arrays. An element of an array variable is referenced by a subscript. A subscript  for an indexed array is denoted by an arithmeticexpression  (see ArithmeticEvaluation below) between a [ and a ]. To assign values to an indexed array, use set -A vname value . . . . The value of all subscripts must be in the range of 0 through 4095. Indexed arrays need not be declared. Any reference to a variable with a valid subscript is legal and an array will be created if necessary.

An associative array is created with the -A option to typeset. A subscript  for an associative array is denoted by a string enclosed between [ and ].

Referencing any array without a subscript is equivalent to referencing the array with subscript 0.

The value  of a variable  may be assigned by writing:

vname=value  vname=value   ] . . .

or

vname[subscript]=value  vname[subscript]=value   ] . . .

Note that no space is allowed before or after the =.

A nameref  is a variable that is a reference to another variable. A nameref is created with the -n attribute of typeset. The value of the variable at the time of the typeset command becomes the variable that will be referenced whenever the nameref variable is used. The name of a nameref cannot contain a .. When a variable or function name contains a ., and the portion of the name up to the first . matches the name of a nameref, the variable referred to is obtained by replacing the nameref portion with the name of the variable referenced by the nameref. A nameref provides a convenient way to refer to the variable inside a function whose name is passed as an argument to a function. For example, if the name of a variable is passed as the first argument to a function, the command

typeset -n var=$1

inside the function causes references and assignments to var to be references and assignments to the variable whose name has been passed to the function.

If either of the floating point attributes, -E, or -F, or the integer attribute, -i, is set for vname, then the value  is subject to arithmetic evaluation as described below.

Positional parameters, parameters denoted by a number, may be assigned values with the set  special built-in command. Parameter $0 is set from argument zero when the shell is invoked.

The character $ is used to introduce substitutable parameters.

${parameter }
The shell reads all the characters from ${ to the matching } as part of the same word even if it contains braces or metacharacters. The value, if any, of the parameter is substituted. The braces are required when parameter  is followed by a letter, digit, or underscore that is not to be interpreted as part of its name, when the variable name contains a ., or when a variable is subscripted. If parameter  is one or more digits then it is a positional parameter. A positional parameter of more than one digit must be enclosed in braces. If parameter  is * or @, then all the positional parameters, starting with $1, are substituted (separated by a field separator character). If an array vname  with subscript * or @ is used, then the value for each of the elements is substituted, separated by the first character of the value of IFS.
${#parameter }
If parameter  is * or @, the number of positional parameters is substituted. Otherwise, the length of the value of the parameter  is substituted.
${#vname[*]}
${#vname[@]}
The number of elements in the array vname  is substituted.
${!vname }
Expands to the name of the variable referred to by vname. This will be vname  except when vname  is a name reference.
${!vname [subscript ]}
Expands to name of the subscript unless subscript  is * or @. When subscript  is *, the list of array subscripts for vname  is generated. For a variable that is not an array, the value is 0 if the variable is set. Otherwise it is null. When subscript  is @, same as above, except that when used in double quotes, each array subscript yields a separate argument.
${!prefix *}
Expands to the names of the variables whose names begin with prefix.
${parameter :-word }
If parameter  is set and is non-null then substitute its value; otherwise substitute word.
${parameter :=word }
If parameter  is not set or is null then set it to word; the value of the parameter is then substituted. Positional parameters may not be assigned to in this way.
${parameter :?word }
If parameter  is set and is non-null then substitute its value; otherwise, print word  and exit from the shell (if not interactive). If word  is omitted then a standard message is printed.
${parameter :+word }
If parameter  is set and is non-null then substitute word; otherwise substitute nothing.
${parameter :offset :length }
${parameter :offset }
Expands to the portion of the value of parameter  starting at the character (counting from ) determined by expanding offset  as an arithmetic expression and consisting of the number of characters determined by the arithmetic expression defined by length. In the second form, the remainder of the value is used. If parameter  is * or @, or is an array name indexed by * or @, then offset  and length  refer to the array index and number of elements respectively.
${parameter #pattern }
${parameter ##pattern }
If the shell pattern  matches the beginning of the value of parameter, then the value of this expansion is the value of the parameter  with the matched portion deleted; otherwise the value of this parameter  is substituted. In the first form the smallest matching pattern is deleted and in the second form the largest matching pattern is deleted. When parameter  is @, *, or an array variable with subscript @ or *, the substring operation is applied to each element in turn.
${parameter %pattern }
${parameter %%pattern }
If the shell pattern  matches the end of the value of parameter, then the value of this expansion is the value of the parameter  with the matched part deleted; otherwise substitute the value of parameter. In the first form the smallest matching pattern is deleted and in the second form the largest matching pattern is deleted. When parameter  is @, *, or an array variable with subscript @ or *, the substring operation is applied to each element in turn.
${parameter /pattern /string }
${parameter //pattern /string }
${parameter /#pattern /string }
${parameter /%pattern /string }
Expands parameter  and replaces the longest match of pattern  with the given string. Each occurrence of \ in string is replaced by the portion of parameter  that matches the -th sub-pattern. In the first form, only the first occurrence of pattern  is replaced. In the second form, each match for pattern  is replaced by the given string. The third form restricts the pattern match to the beginning of the string while the fourth form restricts the pattern match to the end of the string. When string  is null, the pattern  will be deleted and the / in front of string  may be omitted. When parameter  is @, *, or an array variable with subscript @ or *, the substitution operation is applied to each element in turn.

In the above, word  is not evaluated unless it is to be used as the substituted string, so that, in the following example, pwd  is executed only if is not set or is null:

print  ${d:- $( pwd ) }

If the colon ( :) is omitted from the above expressions, then the shell only checks whether parameter  is set or not.

The following parameters are automatically set by the shell:

#
The number of positional parameters in decimal.
-
Options supplied to the shell on invocation or by the set command.
?
The decimal value returned by the last executed command.
$
The process number of this shell.
_
Initially, the value of _ is an absolute pathname of the shell or script being executed as passed in the environment. Subsequently it is assigned the last argument of the previous command. This parameter is not set for commands which are asynchronous. This parameter is also used to hold the name of the matching MAIL file when checking for mail.
!
The process number of the last background command invoked.
.sh.edchar
This variable contains the value of the keyboard character (or sequence of characters if the first character is an ESC, ascii 033 ) that has been entered when processing a KEYBD trap (see KeyBindings  below). If the value is changed as part of the trap action, then the new value replaces the key (or key sequence) that caused the trap.
.sh.edcol
The character position of the cursor at the time of the most recent KEYBD trap.
.sh.edmode
The value is set to ESC when processing a KEYBD trap while in vi insert mode. (See ViEditingMode  below.) Otherwise, .sh.edmode is null when processing a KEYBD trap.
.sh.edtext
The characters in the input buffer at the time of the most recent KEYBD trap. The value is null when not processing a KEYBD trap.
.sh.name
Set to the name of the variable at the time that a discipline function is invoked.
.sh.subscript
Set to the name subscript of the variable at the time that a discipline function is invoked.
.sh.value
Set to the value of the variable at the time that the set discipline function is invoked.
.sh.version
Set to a value that identifies the version of this shell.
LINENO
The current line number within the script or function being executed.
OLDPWD
The previous working directory set by the cd command.
OPTARG
The value of the last option argument processed by the getopts built-in command.
OPTIND
The index of the last option argument processed by the getopts built-in command.
PPID
The process number of the parent of the shell.
PWD
The present working directory set by the cd command.
RANDOM
Each time this variable is referenced, a random integer, uniformly distributed between 0 and 32767, is generated. The sequence of random numbers can be initialized by assigning a numeric value to RANDOM.
REPLY
This variable is set by the select statement and by the read built-in command when no arguments are supplied.
SECONDS
Each time this variable is referenced, the number of seconds since shell invocation is returned. If this variable is assigned a value, then the value returned upon reference will be the value that was assigned plus the number of seconds since the assignment.

The following variables are used by the shell:

CDPATH
The search path for the cd command.
COLUMNS
If this variable is set, the value is used to define the width of the edit window for the shell edit modes and for printing select lists.
EDITOR
If the value of this variable ends in emacs, gmacs, or vi and the VISUAL variable is not set, then the corresponding option (see special built-in command set below) will be turned on.
ENV
If this variable is set, then parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution are performed on the value to generate the pathname of the script that will be executed when the shell is invoked (see Invocation  below). This file is typically used for alias and function definitions.
FCEDIT
Obsolete name for the default editor name for the hist command. FCEDIT is not used when HISTEDIT is set.
FIGNORE
A pattern that defines the set of filenames that will be ignored when performing filename matching.
FPATH
The search path for function definitions. This path is searched for a file with the same name as the function or command when a function with the -u attribute is referenced and when a command is not found. If an executable file with the name of that command is found, then it is read and executed in the current environment.
HISTCMD
Number of the current command in the history file.
HISTEDIT
Name for the default editor name for the hist command.
HISTFILE
If this variable is set when the shell is invoked, then the value is the pathname of the file that will be used to store the command history (see CommandRe-entry  below).
HISTSIZE
If this variable is set when the shell is invoked, then the number of previously entered commands that are accessible by this shell will be greater than or equal to this number. The default is 128.
HOME
The default argument (home directory) for the cd command.
IFS
Internal field separators, normally space, tab, and new-line that are used to separate the results of command substitution or parameter expansion and to separate fields with the built-in command read. The first character of the IFS variable is used to separate arguments for the "$*" substitution (see Quoting below). Each single occurrence of an IFS character in the string to be split, that is not in the isspace  character class, and any adjacent characters in IFS that are in the isspace  character class, delimit a field. One or more characters in IFS that belong to the isspace  character class, delimit a field. In addition, if the same isspace  character appears consecutively inside IFS, this character is treated as if it were not in the isspace  class, so that if IFS consists of two tab characters, then two adjacent tab characters delimit a null field.
LANG
This variable determines the locale category for any category not specifically selected with a variable starting with LC_ or LANG.
LC_ALL
This variable overrides the value of the LANG variable and any other LC_ variable.
LC_COLLATE
This variable determines the locale category for character collation information.
LC_CTYPE
This variable determines the locale category for character handling functions. It determines the character classes for pattern matching (see FileNameGeneration  below).
LC_NUMERIC
This variable determines the locale category for the decimal point character.
LINES
If this variable is set, the value is used to determine the column length for printing select lists. Select lists will print vertically until about two-thirds of LINES lines are filled.
MAIL
If this variable is set to the name of a mail file and  the MAILPATH variable is not set, then the shell informs the user of arrival of mail in the specified file.
MAILCHECK
This variable specifies how often (in seconds) the shell will check for changes in the modification time of any of the files specified by the MAILPATH or MAIL variables. The default value is 600 seconds. When the time has elapsed the shell will check before issuing the next prompt.
MAILPATH
A colon ( : ) separated list of file names. If this variable is set, then the shell informs the user of any modifications to the specified files that have occurred within the last MAILCHECK seconds. Each file name can be followed by a ? and a message that will be printed. The message will undergo parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution with the variable $_ defined as the name of the file that has changed. The default message is youhavemailin$_ .
PATH
The search path for commands (see Execution  below). The user may not change PATH if executing under rsh (except in .profile ).
PS1
The value of this variable is expanded for parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution to define the primary prompt string which by default is ``$   ''. The character ! in the primary prompt string is replaced by the command  number (see CommandRe-entry  below). Two successive occurrences of ! will produce a single ! when the prompt string is printed.
PS2
Secondary prompt string, by default ``>  ''.
PS3
Selection prompt string used within a select loop, by default ``#?  ''.
PS4
The value of this variable is expanded for parameter evaluation, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution and precedes each line of an execution trace. By default, PS4 is ``+  ''. In addition when PS4 is unset, the execution trace prompt is also ``+  ''.
SHELL
The pathname of the shell  is kept in the environment. At invocation, if the basename of this variable is rsh, rksh, or krsh, then the shell becomes restricted.
TMOUT
If set to a value greater than zero, TMOUT will be the default timeout value for the read built-in command. The select compound command terminates after TMOUT seconds when input is from a terminal. Otherwise, the shell will terminate if a line is not entered within the prescribed number of seconds while reading from a terminal. (Note that the shell can be compiled with a maximum bound for this value which cannot be exceeded.)
VISUAL
If the value of this variable ends in emacs, gmacs, or vi then the corresponding option (see Special Command set below) will be turned on. The value of VISUAL overrides the value of EDITOR.

The shell gives default values to PATH, PS1, PS2, PS3, PS4, MAILCHECK, FCEDIT, TMOUT and IFS, while HOME, SHELL, ENV, and MAIL are not set at all by the shell (although HOME is  set by login(1)). On some systems MAIL and SHELL are also set by login(1).

Field Splitting.
After parameter expansion and command substitution, the results of substitutions are scanned for the field separator characters (those found in IFS  ) and split into distinct fields where such characters are found. Explicit null fields ( " " or ' ' ) are retained. Implicit null fields (those resulting from parameters  that have no values or command substitutions with no output) are removed.
File Name Generation.
Following splitting, each field is scanned for the characters *, ?, (, and [   unless the -f option has been set. If one of these characters appears, then the word is regarded as a pattern. Each file name component that contains any pattern character is replaced with a lexicographically sorted set of names that matches the pattern from that directory. If no file name is found that matches the pattern, then that component of the filename is left unchanged. If FIGNORE is set, then each file name component that matches the pattern defined by the value of FIGNORE is ignored when generating the matching filenames. The names . and .. are also ignored. If FIGNORE is not set, the character . at the start of each file name component will be ignored unless the first character of the pattern corresponding to this component is the character . itself. Note, that for other uses of pattern matching the / and . are not treated specially.

*
Matches any string, including the null string.
?
Matches any single character.
 . . .  ]
Matches any one of the enclosed characters. A pair of characters separated by - matches any character lexically between the pair, inclusive. If the first character following the opening [   is a ! then any character not enclosed is matched. A - can be included in the character set by putting it as the first or last character.
Within [   and  ] , character classes can be specified with the syntax [:class:] where class is one of the following classes defined in the ANSI-C standard:

alnum alpha blank cntrl digit graph lower print punct space upper xdigit
Within [   and  ] , an equivalence class can be specified with the syntax [=c=] which matches all characters with the same primary collation weight (as defined by the current locale) as the character c.
Within [   and  ] , [.symbol.] matches the collating symbol symbol.

A pattern-list is a list of one or more patterns separated from each other with a & or |. A & signifies that all patterns must be matched whereas | requires that only one pattern be matched. Composite patterns can be formed with one or more of the following sub-patterns:

?(pattern-list )
Optionally matches any one of the given patterns.
*(pattern-list )
Matches zero or more occurrences of the given patterns.
+(pattern-list )
Matches one or more occurrences of the given patterns.
@(pattern-list )
Matches exactly one of the given patterns.
!(pattern-list )
Matches anything except one of the given patterns.

Each sub-pattern in a composite pattern is numbered, starting at 1, by the location of the ( within the pattern. The sequence \, where is a single digit and \ comes after the n-th. sub-pattern, matches the same string as the sub-pattern itself.

Quoting.
Each of the metacharacters  listed earlier (see uDefinitions\d  above) has a special meaning to the shell and causes termination of a word unless quoted. A character may be quoted  (i.e., made to stand for itself) by preceding it with a \. The pair \new-line is removed. All characters enclosed between a pair of single quote marks ( ' ' ) that is not preceded by a $ are quoted. A single quote cannot appear within the single quotes. A single quoted string preceded by an unquoted $ is processed as an ANSI-C string except that \0 within the string causes the remainder of the string to be ignored and \E is equivalent to the escape character (ascii 033). Inside double quote marks (" "), parameter and command substitution occur and \ quotes the characters \, `, ", and $. A $ in front of a double quoted string will be ignored in the "C" or "POSIX" locale, and may cause the string to be replaced by a locale specific string otherwise. The meaning of $* and $@ is identical when not quoted or when used as a variable assignment value or as a file name. However, when used as a command argument, "$*" is equivalent to "$1d $2d . . .", where d is the first character of the IFS variable, whereas "$@" is equivalent to "$1"  "$2"  . . . . Inside grave quote marks (` `), \ quotes the characters \, `, and $. If the grave quotes occur within double quotes, then \ also quotes the character ".

The special meaning of reserved words or aliases can be removed by quoting any character of the reserved word. The recognition of function names or built-in command names listed below cannot be altered by quoting them.

Arithmetic Evaluation.
The shell performs arithmetic evaluation for arithmetic substitution, to evaluate an arithmetic command, to evaluate an indexed array subscript, and to evaluate arguments to the built-in commands shift  and let. Evaluations are performed using double precision floating point arithmetic. Floating point constants follow the ANSI-C programming language conventions. Integer constants are of the form [ base ] where base  is a decimal number between two and sixty-four representing the arithmetic base and is a number in that base. The digits above 9 are represented by the lower case letters, the upper case letters, @, and _ respectively. For bases less than or equal to 36, upper and lower case characters can be used interchangeably. If base  is omitted, then base 10 is used.

An arithmetic expression uses the same syntax, precedence, and associativity of expression as the C language. All the C language operators that apply to floating point quantities can be used. In addition, when the value of an arithmetic variable or sub-expression can be represented as a long integer, all C language integer arithmetic operations can be performed. Variables can be referenced by name within an arithmetic expression without using the parameter expansion syntax. When a variable is referenced, its value is evaluated as an arithmetic expression.

The following math library functions can be used with an arithmetic expression:

abs acos asin atan cos cosh exp int log sin sinh sqrt tan tanh

An internal representation of a variable  as a double precision floating point can be specified with the -E ] or -F ] option of the typeset special built-in command. The -E option causes the expansion of the value to be represented using scientific notation when it is expanded. The optional option argument n defines the number of significant figures. The -F option causes the expansion to be represented as a floating decimal number when it is expanded. The optional option argument n defines the number of places after the decimal point in this case.

An internal integer representation of a variable  can be specified with the -i ] option of the typeset special built-in command. The optional option argument n specifies an arithmetic base to be used when expanding the variable. If you do not specify an arithmetic base, the first assignment to the variable determines the arithmetic base.

Arithmetic evaluation is performed on the value of each assignment to a variable with the -E, -F, or -i attribute. Assigning a floating point number to a variable whose type is an integer causes the fractional part to be truncated.

Prompting.
When used interactively, the shell prompts with the value of PS1 after expanding it for parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution, before reading a command. In addition, each single ! in the prompt is replaced by the command number. A !! is required to place ! in the prompt. If at any time a new-line is typed and further input is needed to complete a command, then the secondary prompt (i.e., the value of PS2) is issued.
Conditional Expressions.
A conditional expression is used with the [[ compound command to test attributes of files and to compare strings. Field splitting and file name generation are not performed on the words between [[ and ]]. Each expression can be constructed from one or more of the following unary or binary expressions:

string
True, if string is not null.
-a file
Same as -e below. This is obsolete.
-b file
True, if file  exists and is a block special file.
-c file
True, if file  exists and is a character special file.
-d file
True, if file  exists and is a directory.
-e file
True, if file  exists.
-f file
True, if file  exists and is an ordinary file.
-g file
True, if file  exists and it has its setgid bit set.
-k file
True, if file  exists and it has its sticky bit set.
-n string
True, if length of string  is non-zero.
-o option
True, if option named option is on.
-p file
True, if file  exists and is a fifo special file or a pipe.
-r file
True, if file  exists and is readable by current process.
-s file
True, if file  exists and has size greater than zero.
-t fildes
True, if file descriptor number fildes  is open and associated with a terminal device.
-u file
True, if file  exists and it has its setuid bit set.
-w file
True, if file  exists and is writable by current process.
-x file
True, if file  exists and is executable by current process. If file  exists and is a directory, then true if the current process has permission to search in the directory.
-z string
True, if length of string  is zero.
-L file
True, if file  exists and is a symbolic link.
-O file
True, if file  exists and is owned by the effective user id of this process.
-G file
True, if file  exists and its group matches the effective group id of this process.
-S file
True, if file  exists and is a socket.
file1 -nt file2
True, if file1  exists and file2  does not, or file1  is newer than file2.
file1 -ot file2
True, if file2  exists and file1  does not, or file1  is older than file2.
file1 -ef file2
True, if file1  and file2  exist and refer to the same file.
string == pattern
True, if string  matches pattern. Any part of pattern  can be quoted to cause it to be matched as a string.
string = pattern
Same as == above, but is obsolete.
string != pattern
True, if string  does not match pattern.
string1 < string2
True, if string1  comes before string2  based on ASCII value of their characters.
string1 > string2
True, if string1  comes after string2  based on ASCII value of their characters.

The following obsolete arithmetic comparisons are also permitted:

exp1 -eq exp2
True, if exp1  is equal to exp2.
exp1 -ne exp2
True, if exp1  is not equal to exp2.
exp1 -lt exp2
True, if exp1  is less than exp2.
exp1 -gt exp2
True, if exp1  is greater than exp2.
exp1 -le exp2
True, if exp1  is less than or equal to exp2.
exp1 -ge exp2
True, if exp1  is greater than or equal to exp2.

In each of the above expressions, if file  is of the form /dev/fd/n, where is an integer, then the test is applied to the open file whose descriptor number is n.

A compound expression can be constructed from these primitives by using any of the following, listed in decreasing order of precedence.

(expression)
True, if expression  is true. Used to group expressions.
! expression
True if expression  is false.
expression1 && expression2
True, if expression1  and expression2  are both true.
expression1 || expression2
True, if either expression1  or expression2  is true.
Input/Output.
Before a command is executed, its input and output may be redirected using a special notation interpreted by the shell. The following may appear anywhere in a simple-command or may precede or follow a command  and are not  passed on to the invoked command. Command substitution, parameter expansion, and arithmetic substitution occur before word  or digit  is used except as noted below. File name generation occurs only if the shell is interactive and the pattern matches a single file. Field splitting is not performed.

In each of the following redirections, if file  is of the form /dev/tcp/host/port, or /dev/udp/host/port, where host  is a hostname or host address, and port  is an integer port number, then the redirection attempts to make a tcp or udp connection to the corresponding socket.

<word
Use file word  as standard input (file descriptor 0).
>word
Use file word  as standard output (file descriptor 1). If the file does not exist then it is created. If the file exists, and the noclobber option is on, this causes an error; otherwise, it is truncated to zero length.
>|word
Sames as >, except that it overrides the noclobber option.
>>word
Use file word  as standard output. If the file exists, then output is appended to it (by first seeking to the end-of-file); otherwise, the file is created.
<>word
Open file word  for reading and writing as standard input.
<<- ]word
The shell input is read up to a line that is the same as word after any quoting has been removed, or to an end-of-file. No parameter substitution, command substitution, arithmetic substitution or file name generation is performed on word. The resulting document, called a here-document, becomes the standard input. If any character of word  is quoted, then no interpretation is placed upon the characters of the document; otherwise, parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution occur, \new-line is ignored, and \ must be used to quote the characters \, $, `. If - is appended to <<, then all leading tabs are stripped from word  and from the document.
<&digit
The standard input is duplicated from file descriptor digit (see dup(2)). Similarly for the standard output using >& digit.
<&digit-
The file descriptor given by digit is moved to standard input. Similarly for the standard output using >& digit-.
<&-
The standard input is closed. Similarly for the standard output using >&-.
<&p
The input from the co-process is moved to standard input.
>&p
The output to the co-process is moved to standard output.

If one of the above is preceded by a digit, then the file descriptor number referred to is that specified by the digit (instead of the default 0 or 1). For example:

. . .  2>&1

means file descriptor 2 is to be opened for writing as a duplicate of file descriptor 1.

The order in which redirections are specified is significant. The shell evaluates each redirection in terms of the (file descriptor, file) association at the time of evaluation. For example:

. . .  1>fname  2>&1

first associates file descriptor 1 with file fname . It then associates file descriptor 2 with the file associated with file descriptor 1 (i.e. fname ). If the order of redirections were reversed, file descriptor 2 would be associated with the terminal (assuming file descriptor 1 had been) and then file descriptor 1 would be associated with file fname .

If a command is followed by & and job control is not active, then the default standard input for the command is the empty file /dev/null. Otherwise, the environment for the execution of a command contains the file descriptors of the invoking shell as modified by input/output specifications.

Environment.
The environment  (see environ(7)) is a list of name-value pairs that is passed to an executed program in the same way as a normal argument list. The names must be identifiers  and the values are character strings. The shell interacts with the environment in several ways. On invocation, the shell scans the environment and creates a variable for each name found, giving it the corresponding value and attributes and marking it export. Executed commands inherit the environment. If the user modifies the values of these variables or creates new ones, using the export or typeset-x commands, they become part of the environment. The environment seen by any executed command is thus composed of any name-value pairs originally inherited by the shell, whose values may be modified by the current shell, plus any additions which must be noted in export or typeset-x commands.

The environment for any simple-command  or function may be augmented by prefixing it with one or more variable assignments. A variable assignment argument is a word of the form identifier=value. Thus:

TERM=450  cmd  args and
(export  TERM;  TERM=450;  cmd  args)

are equivalent (as far as the above execution of cmd  is concerned except for special built-in commands listed below - those that are preceded with a dagger).

If the obsolete -k option is set, all  variable assignment arguments are placed in the environment, even if they occur after the command name. The following first prints a=b c and then c:

echo  a=b  c
set  -k
echo  a=b  c

This feature is intended for use with scripts written for early versions of the shell and its use in new scripts is strongly discouraged. It is likely to disappear someday.

Functions.

For historical reasons, there are two ways to define functions, the name( ) syntax and the function name  syntax, described in the Commands section above. Shell functions are read in and stored internally. Alias names are resolved when the function is read. Functions are executed like commands with the arguments passed as positional parameters. (See Execution below.)

Functions defined by the function name syntax and called by name execute in the same process as the caller and share all files and present working directory with the caller. Traps caught by the caller are reset to their default action inside the function. A trap condition that is not caught or ignored by the function causes the function to terminate and the condition to be passed on to the caller. A trap on EXIT set inside a function is executed in the environment of the caller after the function completes. Ordinarily, variables are shared between the calling program and the function. However, the typeset special built-in command used within a function defines local variables whose scope includes the current function and all functions it calls. Errors within functions return control to the caller.

Functions defined with the name( ) syntax and functions defined with the function name syntax that are invoked with the . special built-in are executed in the caller's environment and share all variables and traps with the caller. Errors within these function executions cause the script that contains them to abort.

The special built-in command return is used to return from function calls.

Function names can be listed with the -f or +f option of the typeset special built-in command. The text of functions, when available, will also be listed with -f. Functions can be undefined with the -f option of the unset special built-in command.

Ordinarily, functions are unset when the shell executes a shell script. Functions that need to be defined across separate invocations of the shell should be placed in a directory and the FPATH variable should contain the name of this directory. They may also be specified in the ENV file.

Discipline Functions.
Each variable can have zero or more discipline functions associated with it. The shell initially understands the discipline names get, set, and unset but on most systems others can be added at run time via the C programming interface extension provided by the builtin built-in utility. If the get discipline is defined for a variable, it is invoked whenever the given variable is referenced. If the variable .sh.value is assigned a value inside the discipline function, the referenced variable will evaluate to this value instead. If the set discipline is defined for a variable, it is invoked whenever the given variable is assigned a value. The variable .sh.value is given the value of the variable before invoking the discipline, and the variable will be assigned the value of .sh.value after the discipline completes. If .sh.value is unset inside the discipline, then that value is unchanged. If the unset discipline is defined for a variable, it is invoked whenever the given variable is unset. The variable will not be unset unless it is unset explicitly from within this discipline function.

The variable .sh.name contains the name of the variable for which the discipline function is called, .sh.subscript is the subscript of the variable, and .sh.value will contain the value being assigned inside the .set discipline function. For the set discipline, changing .sh.value will change the value that gets assigned.

Jobs.

If the monitor option of the set command is turned on, an interactive shell associates a job with each pipeline. It keeps a table of current jobs, printed by the jobs command, and assigns them small integer numbers. When a job is started asynchronously with &, the shell prints a line which looks like:

[1] 1234

indicating that the job which was started asynchronously was job number 1 and had one (top-level) process, whose process id was 1234.

This paragraph and the next require features that are not in all versions of UNIX and may not apply. If you are running a job and wish to do something else you may hit the key ^Z (control-Z) which sends a STOP signal to the current job. The shell will then normally indicate that the job has been `Stopped', and print another prompt. You can then manipulate the state of this job, putting it in the background with the bg command, or run some other commands and then eventually bring the job back into the foreground with the foreground command fg. A ^Z takes effect immediately and is like an interrupt in that pending output and unread input are discarded when it is typed.

A job being run in the background will stop if it tries to read from the terminal. Background jobs are normally allowed to produce output, but this can be disabled by giving the command stty tostop. If you set this tty option, then background jobs will stop when they try to produce output like they do when they try to read input.

There are several ways to refer to jobs in the shell. A job can be referred to by the process id of any process of the job or by one of the following:

%number
The job with the given number.
%string
Any job whose command line begins with string.
%?string
Any job whose command line contains string.
%%
Current job.
%+
Equivalent to %%.
%-
Previous job.

The shell learns immediately whenever a process changes state. It normally informs you whenever a job becomes blocked so that no further progress is possible, but only just before it prints a prompt. This is done so that it does not otherwise disturb your work. The notify option of the set command causes the shell to print these job change messages as soon as they occur.

When the monitor option is on, each background job that completes triggers any trap set for CHLD.

When you try to leave the shell while jobs are running or stopped, you will be warned that `You have stopped(running) jobs.' You may use the jobs command to see what they are. If you immediately try to exit again, the shell will not warn you a second time, and the stopped jobs will be terminated. When a login shell receives a HUP signal, it sends a HUP signal to each job that has not been disowned with the disown built-in command described below.

Signals.
The INT and QUIT signals for an invoked command are ignored if the command is followed by & and the monitor option is not active. Otherwise, signals have the values inherited by the shell from its parent (but see also the trap built-in command below).
Execution.
Each time a command is read, the above substitutions are carried out. If the command name matches one of the Special Built-in Commands  listed below, it is executed within the current shell process. Next, the command name is checked to see if it matches a user defined function. If it does, the positional parameters are saved and then reset to the arguments of the function  call. A function is also executed in the current shell process. When the function  completes or issues a return, the positional parameter list is restored. For functions defined with the function name  syntax, any trap set on EXIT within the function is executed. The exit value of a function  is the value of the last command executed. If a command name is not a special built-in command  or a user defined function, but it is one of the built-in commands listed below, it is executed in the current shell process.

The shell variable PATH defines the search path for the directory containing the command. Alternative directory names are separated by a colon (:). The default path is /bin:/usr/bin: (specifying /bin, /usr/bin, and the current directory in that order). The current directory can be specified by two or more adjacent colons, or by a colon at the beginning or end of the path list. If the command name contains a /, then the search path is not used. Otherwise, each directory in the path is searched for an executable file that is not a directory. If the shell determines that there is a built-in version of a command corresponding to a given pathname, this built-in is invoked in the current process. A process is created and an attempt is made to execute the command via exec(2). If the file has execute permission but is not an a.out file, it is assumed to be a file containing shell commands. A separate shell is spawned to read it. All non-exported variables are removed in this case. If the shell command file doesn't have read permission, or if the setuid and/or setgid bits are set on the file, then the shell executes an agent whose job it is to set up the permissions and execute the shell with the shell command file passed down as an open file. A parenthesized command is executed in a sub-shell without removing non-exported variables.

Command Re-entry.
The text of the last HISTSIZE (default 128) commands entered from a terminal device is saved in a history file. The file $HOME/.sh_history is used if the HISTFILE variable is not set or if the file it names is not writable. A shell can access the commands of all interactive shells which use the same named HISTFILE. The built-in command hist  is used to list or edit a portion of this file. The portion of the file to be edited or listed can be selected by number or by giving the first character or characters of the command. A single command or range of commands can be specified. If you do not specify an editor program as an argument to hist  then the value of the variable HISTEDIT is used. If HISTEDIT is unset, the obsolete variable FCEDIT is used. If FCEDIT is not defined, then /bin/ed is used. The edited command(s) is printed and re-executed upon leaving the editor unless you quit without writing. The -s option (and in obsolete versions, the editor name ) is used to skip the editing phase and to re-execute the command. In this case a substitution parameter of the form old=new can be used to modify the command before execution. For example, with the preset alias r, which is aliased to 'hist -s', typing `r bad=good c' will re-execute the most recent command which starts with the letter c, replacing the first occurrence of the string bad with the string good.
In-line Editing Options.
Normally, each command line entered from a terminal device is simply typed followed by a new-line (`RETURN' or `LINE FEED'). If either the emacs, gmacs, or vi option is active, the user can edit the command line. To be in either of these edit modes set the corresponding option. An editing option is automatically selected each time the VISUAL or EDITOR variable is assigned a value ending in either of these option names.

The editing features require that the user's terminal accept `RETURN' as carriage return without line feed and that a space (` ') must overwrite the current character on the screen.

The editing modes implement a concept where the user is looking through a window at the current line. The window width is the value of COLUMNS if it is defined, otherwise 80. If the window width is too small to display the prompt and leave at least 8 columns to enter input, the prompt is truncated from the left. If the line is longer than the window width minus two, a mark is displayed at the end of the window to notify the user. As the cursor moves and reaches the window boundaries the window will be centered about the cursor. The mark is a > (<, *) if the line extends on the right (left, both) side(s) of the window.

The search commands in each edit mode provide access to the history file. Only strings are matched, not patterns, although a leading ^ in the string restricts the match to begin at the first character in the line.

Each of the edit modes has an operation to list the files or commands that match a partially entered word. When applied to the first word on the line, or the first word after a ;, |, &, or (, and the word does not begin with ~ or contain a /, the list of aliases, functions, and executable commands defined by the PATH variable that could match the partial word is displayed. Otherwise, the list of files that match the given word is displayed. If the partially entered word does not contain any file expansion characters, a * is appended before generating these lists. After displaying the generated list, the input line is redrawn. These operations are called command name listing and file name listing, respectively. There are additional operations, referred to as command name completion and file name completion, which compute the list of matching commands or files, but instead of printing the list, replace the current word with a complete or partial match. For file name completion, if the match is unique, a / is appended if the file is a directory and a space is appended if the file is not a directory. Otherwise, the longest common prefix for all the matching files replaces the word. For command name completion, only the portion of the file names after the last / are used to find the longest command prefix. If only a single name matches this prefix, then the word is replaced with the command name followed by a space.

Key Bindings.
The KEYBD trap can be used to intercept keys as they are typed and change the characters that are actually seen by the shell. This trap is executed after each character (or sequence of characters when the first character is ESC) is entered while reading from a terminal. The variable .sh.edchar contains the character or character sequence which generated the trap. Changing the value of .sh.edchar in the trap action causes the shell to behave as if the new value were entered from the keyboard rather than the original value.

The variable .sh.edcol is set to the input column number of the cursor at the time of the input. The variable .sh.edmode is set to ESC when in vi insert mode (see below) and is null otherwise. By prepending ${.sh.editmode} to a value assigned to .sh.edchar it will cause the shell to change to control mode if it is not already in this mode.

This trap is not invoked for characters entered as arguments to editing directives, or while reading input for a character search.

Emacs Editing Mode.
This mode is entered by enabling either the emacs or gmacs option. The only difference between these two modes is the way they handle ^T. To edit, the user moves the cursor to the point needing correction and then inserts or deletes characters or words as needed. All the editing commands are control characters or escape sequences. The notation for control characters is caret (^) followed by the character. For example, ^F is the notation for control F. This is entered by depressing `f' while holding down the `CTRL' (control) key. The `SHIFT' key is not depressed. (The notation ^? indicates the DEL (delete) key.)

The notation for escape sequences is M- followed by a character. For example, M-f (pronounced Meta f) is entered by depressing ESC (ascii 033) followed by `f'. (M-F would be the notation for ESC followed by `SHIFT' (capital) `F'.)

All edit commands operate from any place on the line (not just at the beginning). Neither the `RETURN' nor the `LINE FEED' key is entered after edit commands except when noted.

^F
Move cursor forward (right) one character.

M-f
Move cursor forward one word. (The emacs editor's idea of a word is a string of characters consisting of only letters, digits and underscores.)

^B
Move cursor backward (left) one character.

M-b
Move cursor backward one word.

^A
Move cursor to start of line.

^E
Move cursor to end of line.

^]char
Move cursor forward to character char on current line.

M-^]char
Move cursor backward to character char on current line.

^X^X
Interchange the cursor and mark.

erase
(User defined erase character as defined by the stty(1) command, usually ^H or #.) Delete previous character.

^D
Delete current character.

M-d
Delete current word.

M-^H
(Meta-backspace) Delete previous word.

M-h
Delete previous word.

M-^?
(Meta-DEL) Delete previous word (if your interrupt character is ^? (DEL, the default) then this command will not work).

^T
Transpose current character with previous character and advance the cursor in emacs mode. Transpose two previous characters in gmacs mode.

^C
Capitalize current character.

M-c
Capitalize current word.

M-l
Change the current word to lower case.

^K
Delete from the cursor to the end of the line. If preceded by a numerical parameter whose value is less than the current cursor position, then delete from given position up to the cursor. If preceded by a numerical parameter whose value is greater than the current cursor position, then delete from cursor up to given cursor position.

^W
Kill from the cursor to the mark.

M-p
Push the region from the cursor to the mark on the stack.

kill
(User defined kill character as defined by the stty command, usually ^G or @.) Kill the entire current line. If two kill characters are entered in succession, all kill characters from then on cause a line feed (useful when using paper terminals).

^Y
Restore last item removed from line. (Yank item back to the line.)

^L
Line feed and print current line.

^@
(Null character) Set mark.

M-space
(Meta space) Set mark.

^J
(New line) Execute the current line.

^M
(Return) Execute the current line.

eof
End-of-file character, normally ^D, is processed as an End-of-file only if the current line is null.

^P
Fetch previous command. Each time ^P is entered the previous command back in time is accessed. Moves back one line when not on the first line of a multi-line command.

M-<
Fetch the least recent (oldest) history line.

M->
Fetch the most recent (youngest) history line.

^N
Fetch next command line. Each time ^N is entered the next command line forward in time is accessed.

^Rstring
Reverse search history for a previous command line containing string. If a parameter of zero is given, the search is forward. String is terminated by a `RETURN' or `NEW LINE'. If string is preceded by a ^, the matched line must begin with string. If string is omitted, then the next command line containing the most recent string is accessed. In this case a parameter of zero reverses the direction of the search.

^O
Operate - Execute the current line and fetch the next line relative to current line from the history file.

M-digits
(Escape) Define numeric parameter, the digits are taken as a parameter to the next command. The commands that accept a parameter are ^F, ^B, erase, ^C, ^D, ^K, ^R, ^P, ^N, ^], M-., M-^], M-_, M-b, M-c, M-d, M-f, M-h, M-l and M-^H.

M-letter
Soft-key - Your alias list is searched for an alias by the name _letter and if an alias of this name is defined, its value will be inserted on the input queue. The letter must not be one of the above meta-functions.

M-[letter
Soft-key - Your alias list is searched for an alias by the name __letter and if an alias of this name is defined, its value will be inserted on the input queue. The can be used to program functions keys on many terminals.

M-.
The last word of the previous command is inserted on the line. If preceded by a numeric parameter, the value of this parameter determines which word to insert rather than the last word.

M-_
Same as M-..

M-*
Attempt file name generation on the current word. An asterisk is appended if the word doesn't match any file or contain any special pattern characters.

M-ESC
Command or file name completion as described above.

M-=
Command or file name listing as described above.

^U
Multiply parameter of next command by 4.

\
Escape next character. Editing characters, the user's erase, kill and interrupt (normally ^?) characters may be entered in a command line or in a search string if preceded by a \. The \ removes the next character's editing features (if any).

^V
Display version of the shell.

M-#
If the line does not begin with a #, a # is inserted at the beginning of the line and after each new-line, and the line is entered. This causes a comment to be inserted in the history file. If the line begins with a #, the # is deleted and one # after each new-line is also deleted.
Vi Editing Mode.
There are two typing modes. Initially, when you enter a command you are in the input  mode. To edit, the user enters control  mode by typing ESC (033) and moves the cursor to the point needing correction and then inserts or deletes characters or words as needed. Most control commands accept an optional repeat count prior to the command.

When in vi mode on most systems, canonical processing is initially enabled and the command will be echoed again if the speed is 1200 baud or greater and it contains any control characters or less than one second has elapsed since the prompt was printed. The ESC character terminates canonical processing for the remainder of the command and the user can then modify the command line. This scheme has the advantages of canonical processing with the type-ahead echoing of raw mode.

If the option viraw  is also set, the terminal will always have canonical processing disabled. This mode is implicit for systems that do not support two alternate end of line delimiters, and may be helpful for certain terminals.

     Input Edit Commands

By default the editor is in input mode.

erase
(User defined erase character as defined by the stty command, usually ^H or #.) Delete previous character.
^W
Delete the previous blank separated word. On some systems the viraw option may be required for this to work.
eof
As the first character of the line causes the shell to terminate unless the ignoreeof option is set. Otherwise this character is ignored.
^V
Escape next character. Editing characters and the user's erase or kill characters may be entered in a command line or in a search string if preceded by a ^V. The ^V removes the next character's editing features (if any). On some systems the viraw option may be required for this to work.
\
Escape the next erase or kill character.

     Motion Edit Commands
These commands will move the cursor.

[count]l
Cursor forward (right) one character.
[count]w
Cursor forward one alpha-numeric word.
[count]W
Cursor to the beginning of the next word that follows a blank.
[count]e
Cursor to end of word.
[count]E
Cursor to end of the current blank delimited word.
[count]h
Cursor backward (left) one character.
[count]b
Cursor backward one word.
[count]B
Cursor to preceding blank separated word.
[count]|
Cursor to column count.
[count]fc
Find the next character c in the current line.
[count]Fc
Find the previous character c in the current line.
[count]tc
Equivalent to f followed by h.
[count]Tc
Equivalent to F followed by l.
[count];
Repeats count times, the last single character find command, f, F, t, or T.
[count],
Reverses the last single character find command count times.
0
Cursor to start of line.
^
Cursor to first non-blank character in line.
$
Cursor to end of line.
%
Moves to balancing (, ), {, }, [, or ]. If cursor is not on one of the above characters, the remainder of the line is searched for the first occurrence of one of the above characters first.

     Search Edit Commands
These commands access your command history.

[count]k
Fetch previous command. Each time k is entered the previous command back in time is accessed.
[count]-
Equivalent to k.
[count]j
Fetch next command. Each time j is entered the next command forward in time is accessed.
[count]+
Equivalent to j.
[count]G
The command number count is fetched. The default is the least recent history command.
/string
Search backward through history for a previous command containing string. String is terminated by a `RETURN' or `NEW LINE'. If string is preceded by a ^, the matched line must begin with string. If string is null, the previous string will be used.
?string
Same as / except that search will be in the forward direction.
n
Search for next match of the last pattern to / or ? commands.
N
Search for next match of the last pattern to / or ?, but in reverse direction.

     Text Modification Edit Commands
These commands will modify the line.

a
Enter input mode and enter text after the current character.
A
Append text to the end of the line. Equivalent to $a.
[count]cmotion
c[count]motion
Delete current character through the character that motion would move the cursor to and enter input mode. If motion is c, the entire line will be deleted and input mode entered.
C
Delete the current character through the end of line and enter input mode. Equivalent to c$.
S
Equivalent to cc.
[count]s
Replace characters under the cursor in input mode.
D
Delete the current character through the end of line. Equivalent to d$.
[count]dmotion
d[count]motion
Delete current character through the character that motion would move to. If motion is d, the entire line will be deleted.
i
Enter input mode and insert text before the current character.
I
Insert text before the beginning of the line. Equivalent to 0i.
[count]P
Place the previous text modification before the cursor.
[count]p
Place the previous text modification after the cursor.
R
Enter input mode and replace characters on the screen with characters you type overlay fashion.
[count]rc
Replace the count character(s) starting at the current cursor position with c, and advance the cursor.
[count]x
Delete current character.
[count]X
Delete preceding character.
[count].
Repeat the previous text modification command.
[count]~
Invert the case of the count character(s) starting at the current cursor position and advance the cursor.
[count]_
Causes the count  word of the previous command to be appended and input mode entered. The last word is used if count  is omitted.
*
Causes an * to be appended to the current word and file name generation attempted. If no match is found, it rings the bell. Otherwise, the word is replaced by the matching pattern and input mode is entered.
\
Command or file name completion as described above.

     Other Edit Commands
Miscellaneous commands.

[count]ymotion
y[count]motion
Yank current character through character that motion would move the cursor to and puts them into the delete buffer. The text and cursor are unchanged.
yy
Yanks the entire line.
Y
Yanks from current position to end of line. Equivalent to y$.
u
Undo the last text modifying command.
U
Undo all the text modifying commands performed on the line.
[count]v
Returns the command hist -e ${VISUAL:-${EDITOR:-vi}} count in the input buffer. If count  is omitted, then the current line is used.
^L
Line feed and print current line. Has effect only in control mode.
^J
(New line) Execute the current line, regardless of mode.
^M
(Return) Execute the current line, regardless of mode.
#
If the first character of the command is a #, then this command deletes this # and each # that follows a newline. Otherwise, sends the line after inserting a # in front of each line in the command. Useful for causing the current line to be inserted in the history as a comment and uncommenting previously commented commands in the history file.
=
Command or file name listing as described above.
@letter
Your alias list is searched for an alias by the name _letter and if an alias of this name is defined, its value will be inserted on the input queue for processing.
^V
Display version of the shell.

Built-in Commands.
The following simple-commands are executed in the shell process. Input/Output redirection is permitted. Unless otherwise indicated, the output is written on file descriptor 1 and the exit status, when there is no syntax error, is zero. Except for :, true, false, echo, command, newgrp, and login, all built-in commands accept -- to indicate end of options. They also interpret the option -? as a help request and print a usage  message on standard error. Commands that are preceded by one or two § symbols are special built-in commands and are treated specially in the following ways:

1.
Variable assignment lists preceding the command remain in effect when the command completes.
2.
I/O redirections are processed after variable assignments.
3.
Errors cause a script that contains them to abort.
4.
They are not valid function names.
5.
Words following a command preceded by §§ that are in the format of a variable assignment are expanded with the same rules as a variable assignment. This means that tilde substitution is performed after the = sign and field splitting and file name generation are not performed.
§ :arg  . . .  ]
The command only expands parameters.
§  . name arg  . . .  ]
If name  is a function defined with the function name  reserved word syntax, the function is executed in the current environment (as if it had been defined with the name() syntax.) Otherwise if name  refers to a file, the file is read in its entirety and the commands are executed in the current shell environment. The search path specified by PATH is used to find the directory containing the file. If any arguments arg  are given, they become the positional parameters while processing the . command and the original positional parameters are restored upon completion. Otherwise the positional parameters are unchanged. The exit status is the exit status of the last command executed.
§§ alias-ptx  ] [  name=value   ]  ] . . .
alias  with no arguments prints the list of aliases in the form name=value  on standard output. The -p option causes the word alias to be inserted before each one. When one or more arguments are given, an alias  is defined for each name  whose value  is given. A trailing space in value  causes the next word to be checked for alias substitution. The obsolete -t option is used to set and list tracked aliases. The value of a tracked alias is the full pathname corresponding to the given name. The value becomes undefined when the value of PATH is reset but the alias remains tracked. Without the -t option, for each name  in the argument list for which no value  is given, the name and value of the alias is printed. The obsolete -x option has no effect. The exit status is non-zero if a name  is given, but no value, and no alias has been defined for the name .
bgjob . . .  ]
This command is only on systems that support job control. Puts each specified job  into the background. The current job is put in the background if job  is not specified. See Jobs for a description of the format of job.
§ break  ]
Exit from the enclosing for , while , until , or select  loop, if any. If is specified, then break levels.
builtin-ds  ] [  -f file   ] [  name  . . .  ]
If name  is not specified, and no -f option is specified, the built-ins are printed on standard output. The -s option prints only the special built-ins. Otherwise, each name  represents the pathname whose basename is the name of the built-in. The entry point function name is determined by prepending b_ to the built-in name. Special built-ins cannot be bound to a pathname or deleted. The -d option deletes each of the given built-ins. On systems that support dynamic loading, the -f option names a shared library containing the code for built-ins. Once a library is loaded, its symbols become available for subsequent invocations of builtin. Multiple libraries can be specified with separate invocations of the builtin command. Libraries are searched in the reverse order in which they are specified. When a library is loaded, it looks for a function in the library whose name is lib_init() and invokes this function with an argument of 0.
cd-LP  ] [  arg   ]
cd-LP  ] old  new 
This command can be in either of two forms. In the first form it changes the current directory to arg. If arg  is - the directory is changed to the previous directory. The shell variable HOME is the default arg. The variable PWD is set to the current directory. The shell variable CDPATH defines the search path for the directory containing arg. Alternative directory names are separated by a colon (:). The default path is <null> (specifying the current directory). Note that the current directory is specified by a null path name, which can appear immediately after the equal sign or between the colon delimiters anywhere else in the path list. If arg begins with a / then the search path is not used. Otherwise, each directory in the path is searched for arg.
The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the current directory name, PWD, and tries to change to this new directory.
By default, symbolic link names are treated literally when finding the directory name. This is equivalent to the -L option. The -P option causes symbolic links to be resolved when determining the directory. The last instance of -L or -P on the command line determines which method is used.
The cd  command may not be executed by rsh .
command-pvV  ] name arg  . . .  ]
Without the -v or -V options, command executes name  with the arguments given by arg. The -p option causes a default path to be searched rather than the one defined by the value of PATH. Functions will not be searched for when finding name. In addition, if name  refers to a special built-in, none of the special properties associated with the leading daggers will be honored. (For example, the predefined alias redirect='command exec' prevents a script from terminating when an invalid redirection is given.) With the -v option, command is equivalent to the built-in whence command described below. The -V option causes command to act like whence -v.
§ continue  ]
Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for , while , until , or select  loop. If is specified, then resume at the n-th enclosing loop.
disownjob . . .  ]
Causes the shell not to send a HUP signal to each given job, or all active jobs if job is omitted, when a login shell terminates.
echoarg  . . .  ]
When the first arg  does not begin with a -, and none of the arguments contain a \, then echo prints each of its arguments separated by a space and terminated by a new-line. Otherwise, the behavior of echo is system dependent and print or printf described below should be used. See echo(1) for usage and description.
§ evalarg  . . .  ]
The arguments are read as input to the shell and the resulting command(s) executed.
§ exec-c  ] [  -a name   ] [  arg  . . .  ]
If arg  is given, the command specified by the arguments is executed in place of this shell without creating a new process. The -c option causes the environment to be cleared before applying variable assignments associated with the exec invocation. The -a option causes name  rather than the first arg, to become argv[0] for the new process. Input/output arguments may appear and affect the current process. If arg  is not given, the effect of this command is to modify file descriptors as prescribed by the input/output redirection list. In this case, any file descriptor numbers greater than 2 that are opened with this mechanism are closed when invoking another program.
§ exit  ]
Causes the shell to exit with the exit status specified by n. The value will be the least significant 8 bits of the specified status. If is omitted, then the exit status is that of the last command executed. An end-of-file will also cause the shell to exit except for a shell which has the ignoreeof option (see set below) turned on.
§§ export-p  ] [  name =value  ]  ] . . .
If name  is not given, the names and values of each variable with the export attribute are printed with the values quoted in a manner that allows them to be re-input. The -p option causes the word export to be inserted before each one. Otherwise, the given names are marked for automatic export to the environment  of subsequently-executed commands.
false
Does nothing, and exits 1. Used with until for infinite loops.
fgjob . . .  ]
This command is only on systems that support job control. Each job  specified is brought to the foreground and waited for in the specified order. Otherwise, the current job is brought into the foreground. See Jobs for a description of the format of job.
getconfname pathname   ]  ]
Prints the current value of the configuration parameter given by name. The configuration parameters are defined by the IEEE POSIX 1003.1 and IEEE POSIX 1003.2 standards. (See pathconf(2) and sysconf(2).) The pathname argument is required for parameters whose value depends on the location in the file system. If no arguments are given, getconf prints the names and values of the current configuration parameters. The pathname / is used for each of the parameters that requires pathname.
getopts -a name   ] optstring vname arg  . . .  ]
Checks arg for legal options. If arg is omitted, the positional parameters are used. An option argument begins with a + or a -. An option not beginning with + or - or the argument - - ends the options. optstring contains the letters that getopts recognizes. If a letter is followed by a :, that option is expected to have an argument. The options can be separated from the argument by blanks. The option -? causes getopts to generate a usage message on standard error. The -a argument can be used to specify the name to use for the usage message, which defaults to $0.
getopts places the next option letter it finds inside variable vname  each time it is invoked. The option letter will be prepended with a + when arg begins with a +. The index of the next arg is stored in OPTIND. The option argument, if any, gets stored in OPTARG.
A leading : in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of an invalid option in OPTARG, and to set vname to ? for an unknown option and to : when a required option is missing. Otherwise, getopts prints an error message. The exit status is non-zero when there are no more options.
There is no way to specify any of the options :, +, -, ?, [, and ]. The option # can only be specified as the first option.
hist-e ename    ] [  -nlr   ] [  first last   ]  ]
hist -s old\=new   ] [  command   ]
In the first form, a range of commands from first  to last  is selected from the last HISTSIZE commands that were typed at the terminal. The arguments first  and last  may be specified as a number or as a string. A string is used to locate the most recent command starting with the given string. A negative number is used as an offset to the current command number. If the -l option is selected, the commands are listed on standard output. Otherwise, the editor program ename  is invoked on a file containing these keyboard commands. If ename  is not supplied, then the value of the variable HISTEDIT is used. If HISTEDIT is not set, then FCEDIT (default /bin/ed ) is used as the editor. When editing is complete, the edited command(s) is executed if the changes have been saved. If last  is not specified, then it will be set to first. If first  is not specified, the default is the previous command for editing and -16 for listing. The option -r reverses the order of the commands and the option -n suppresses command numbers when listing. In the second form, command  is interpreted as first  described above and defaults to the last command executed. The resulting command is executed after the optional substitution old =new  is performed.
jobs-lnp   ] [  job  \. . .  ]
Lists information about each given job; or all active jobs if job is omitted. The -l option lists process ids in addition to the normal information. The -n option only displays jobs that have stopped or exited since last notified. The -p option causes only the process group to be listed. See Jobs for a description of the format of job.
kill-s signame   ] job  . . .
kill-n signum   ] job  . . .
kill -lsig  . . .  ]
Sends either the TERM (terminate) signal or the specified signal to the specified jobs or processes. Signals are either given by number with the -n option or by name with the -s option (as given in <signal.h>, stripped of the prefix ``SIG'' with the exception that SIGCLD is named CHLD). For backward compatibility, the n and s can be omitted and the number or name placed immediately after the -. If the signal being sent is TERM (terminate) or HUP (hangup), then the job or process will be sent a CONT (continue) signal if it is stopped. The argument job  can be the process id of a process that is not a member of one of the active jobs. See Jobs for a description of the format of job. In the third form, kill -l, if sig  is not specified, the signal names are listed. Otherwise, for each sig  that is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed. For each sig  that is a number, the signal name corresponding to the least significant 8 bits of sig  is listed.
let arg  . . .
Each arg is a separate arithmetic expression to be evaluated. See ArithmeticEvaluation above, for a description of arithmetic expression evaluation.
The exit status is 0 if the value of the last expression is non-zero, and 1 otherwise.
§ newgrparg  . . .  ]
Equivalent to exec /bin/newgrp arg  . . . .
print-Rnprs   ] [  -u unit  ] [  -f format   ] [  arg  . . .  ]
With no options or with option - or - -, each arg is printed on standard output. The -f option causes the arguments to be printed as described by printf. In this case, any n, r, R options are ignored. Otherwise, unless the -R or -r, are specified, the following escape conventions will be applied:

\a
The alert character (ascii 07).
\b
The backspace character (ascii 010).
\c
Causes print to end without processing more arguments and not adding a new-line.
\f
The formfeed character (ascii 014).
\n
The new-line character (ascii 012).
\r
The carriage return character (ascii 015).
\t
The tab character (ascii 011).
\v
The vertical tab character (ascii 013).
\E
The escape character (ascii 033).
\\
The backslash character \.
\0x
The character defined by the 1, 2, or 3-digit octal string given by x.

The -R option will print all subsequent arguments and options other than -n. The -p option causes the arguments to be written onto the pipe of the process spawned with |& instead of standard output. The -s option causes the arguments to be written onto the history file instead of standard output. The -u option can be used to specify a one digit file descriptor unit number unit  on which the output will be placed. The default is 1. If the option -n is used, no new-line  is added to the output.

printf format arg  . . .  ]
The arguments arg  are printed on standard output in accordance with the ANSI-C formatting rules associated with the format string format. If the number of arguments exceeds the number of format specifications, the format  string is reused to format remaining arguments. The following extensions can also be used:
  • A %b format can be used instead of %s to cause escape sequences in the corresponding arg  to be expanded as described in print.
  • A %P format can be used instead of %s to cause arg  to be interpreted as an extended regular expression and be printed as a shell pattern.
  • A %q format can be used instead of %s to cause the resulting string to be quoted in a manner than can be reinput to the shell.
  • The precision field of the %d format can be followed by a . and the output base.
pwd-LP  ]
Outputs the value of the current working directory. The -L option is the default; it prints the logical name of the current directory. If the -P option is given, all symbolic links are resolved from the name. The last instance of -L or -P on the command line determines which method is used.
read-Aprs   ] [  -d delim  ] [  -t timeout  ] [  -u unit  ] [  vname?prompt   ] [  vname  . . .  ]
The shell input mechanism. One line is read and is broken up into fields using the characters in IFS as separators. The escape character, \, is used to remove any special meaning for the next character and for line continuation. The -d option causes the read to continue to the first character of delim  rather than new-line. In raw mode, -r, the \ character is not treated specially. The first field is assigned to the first vname, the second field to the second vname, etc., with leftover fields assigned to the last vname. The -A option causes the variable vname  to be unset and each field that is read to be stored in successive elements of the indexed array vname. The -p option causes the input line to be taken from the input pipe of a process spawned by the shell using |&. If the -s option is present, the input will be saved as a command in the history file. The option -u can be used to specify a one digit file descriptor unit unit  to read from. The file descriptor can be opened with the exec  special built-in command. The default value of unit is 0. The option -t is used to specify a timeout in seconds when reading from a terminal or pipe. If vname  is omitted, then REPLY is used as the default vname. An end-of-file with the -p option causes cleanup for this process so that another can be spawned. If the first argument contains a ?, the remainder of this word is used as a prompt  on standard error when the shell is interactive. The exit status is 0 unless an end-of-file is encountered or read has timed out.
§§ readonly-p  ] [  vname=value  ]  ] . . .
If vname  is not given, the names and values of each variable with the readonly attribute is printed with the values quoted in a manner that allows them to be re-inputted. The -p option causes the word readonly to be inserted before each one. Otherwise, the given vnames are marked readonly and these names cannot be changed by subsequent assignment.
§ return  ]
Causes a shell function or  . script to return to the invoking script with the exit status specified by n. The value will be the least significant 8 bits of the specified status. If is omitted, then the return status is that of the last command executed. If return is invoked while not in a function or a  . script, then it behaves the same as exit.
§ set±Cabefhkmnopstuvx  ] [  ±ooption   ]  ] . . . [  ±A vname   ] [  arg  . . .  ]
The options for this command have meaning as follows:

-A
Array assignment. Unset the variable vname and assign values sequentially from the arg  list. If +A is used, the variable vname is not unset first.
-C
Prevents redirection > from truncating existing files. Files that are created are opened with the O_EXCL mode. Requires >| to truncate a file when turned on.
-a
All subsequent variables that are defined are automatically exported.
-b
Prints job completion messages as soon as a background job changes state rather than waiting for the next prompt.
-e
If a command has a non-zero exit status, execute the ERR trap, if set, and exit. This mode is disabled while reading profiles.
-f
Disables file name generation.
-h
Each command becomes a tracked alias when first encountered.
-k
(Obsolete). All variable assignment arguments are placed in the environment for a command, not just those that precede the command name.
-m
Background jobs will run in a separate process group and a line will print upon completion. The exit status of background jobs is reported in a completion message. On systems with job control, this option is turned on automatically for interactive shells.
-n
Read commands and check them for syntax errors, but do not execute them. Ignored for interactive shells.
-o
The following argument can be one of the following option names:

allexport
Same as -a.
errexit
Same as -e.
bgnice
All background jobs are run at a lower priority. This is the default mode.
emacs
Puts you in an emacs style in-line editor for command entry.
gmacs
Puts you in a gmacs style in-line editor for command entry.
ignoreeof
The shell will not exit on end-of-file. The command exit must be used.
keyword
Same as -k.
markdirs
All directory names resulting from file name generation have a trailing / appended.
monitor
Same as -m.
noclobber
Same as -C.
noexec
Same as -n.
noglob
Same as -f.
nolog
Do not save function definitions in the history file.
notify
Same as -b.
nounset
Same as -u.
privileged
Same as -p.
verbose
Same as -v.
trackall
Same as -h.
vi
Puts you in insert mode of a vi  style in-line editor until you hit the escape character 033. This puts you in control mode. A return sends the line.
viraw
Each character is processed as it is typed in vi  mode.
xtrace
Same as -x.
If no option name is supplied, then the current option settings are printed.

-p
Disables processing of the $HOME/.profile file and uses the file /etc/suid_profile instead of the ENV file. This mode is on whenever the effective uid (gid) is not equal to the real uid (gid). Turning this off causes the effective uid and gid to be set to the real uid and gid.
-s
Sort the positional parameters lexicographically.
-t
(Obsolete). Exit after reading and executing one command.
-u
Treat unset parameters as an error when substituting.
-v
Print shell input lines as they are read.
-x
Print commands and their arguments as they are executed.
- -
Do not change any of the options; useful in setting $1 to a value beginning with -. If no arguments follow this option then the positional parameters are unset.

As an obsolete feature, if the first arg  is - then the -x and -v options are turned off and the next arg is treated as the first argument. Using + rather than - causes these options to be turned off. These options can also be used upon invocation of the shell. The current set of options may be found in $-. Unless -A is specified, the remaining arguments are positional parameters and are assigned, in order, to $1 $2 . . . . If no arguments are given, then the names and values of all variables are printed on the standard output.

§ shift  ]

The positional parameters from $n+1 . . . are renamed $1 . . .  , default is 1. The parameter can be any arithmetic expression that evaluates to a non-negative number less than or equal to $#.
sleep seconds 
Suspends execution for the number of decimal seconds or fractions of a second given by seconds.
§ trap-p  ] [  action   ] [  sig   ] . . .
The -p option causes the trap action associated with each trap as specified by the arguments to be printed with appropriate quoting. Otherwise, action  will be processed as if it were an argument to eval when the shell receives signal(s) sig. Each sig  can be given as a number or as the name of the signal. Trap commands are executed in order of signal number. Any attempt to set a trap on a signal that was ignored on entry to the current shell is ineffective. If action  is omitted and the first sig  is a number, or if action  is -, then the trap(s) for each sig  are reset to their original values. If action  is the null string then this signal is ignored by the shell and by the commands it invokes. If sig  is ERR then action  will be executed whenever a command has a non-zero exit status. If sig  is DEBUG then action  will be executed before each command. If sig  is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is executed inside the body of a function, then the command action  is executed after the function completes. If sig  is 0 or EXIT for a trap set outside any function then the command action  is executed on exit from the shell. If sig  is KEYBD, then action  will be executed whenever a key is read while in emacs, gmacs, or vi  mode. The trap command with no arguments prints a list of commands associated with each signal number.
true
Does nothing, and exits 0. Used with while for infinite loops.
§§ typeset±AHflnprtux   ] [  ±EFLRZi ]  ] [  vname =value   ]    ] . . .
Sets attributes and values for shell variables and functions. When invoked inside a function, a new instance of the variable vname  is created. The variable's value and type are restored when the function completes. The following list of attributes may be specified:

-A
Declares vname  to be an associative array. Subscripts are strings rather than arithmetic expressions.
-E
Declares vname  to be a double precision floating point number. If is non-zero, it defines the number of significant figures that are used when expanding vname. Otherwise, ten significant figures will be used.
-F
Declares vname  to be a double precision floating point number. If is non-zero, it defines the number of places after the decimal point that are used when expanding vname. Otherwise ten places after the decimal point will be used.
-H
This option provides UNIX to host-name file mapping on non-UNIX machines.
-L
Left justify and remove leading blanks from value. If is non-zero, it defines the width of the field, otherwise it is determined by the width of the value of first assignment. When the variable is assigned to, it is filled on the right with blanks or truncated, if necessary, to fit into the field. The -R option is turned off.
-R
Right justify and fill with leading blanks. If is non-zero, it defines the width of the field, otherwise it is determined by the width of the value of first assignment. The field is left filled with blanks or truncated from the end if the variable is reassigned. The -L option is turned off.
-Z
Right justify and fill with leading zeros if the first non-blank character is a digit and the -L option has not been set. Remove leading zeros if the -L option is also set. If is non-zero, it defines the width of the field, otherwise it is determined by the width of the value of first assignment.
-f
The names refer to function names rather than variable names. No assignments can be made and the only other valid options are -t, -u and -x. The -t option turns on execution tracing for this function. The -u option causes this function to be marked undefined. The FPATH variable will be searched to find the function definition when the function is referenced.
-i
Declares vname  to be represented internally as integer. The right hand side of an assignment is evaluated as an arithmetic expression when assigning to an integer. If is non-zero, it defines the output arithmetic base, otherwise the output base will be ten.
-l
All upper-case characters are converted to lower-case. The upper-case option, -u, is turned off.
-n
Declares vname  to be a reference to the variable whose name is defined by the value of variable vname. This is usually used to reference a variable inside a function whose name has been passed as an argument.
-r
The given vnames are marked readonly and these names cannot be changed by subsequent assignment.
-t
Tags the variables. Tags are user definable and have no special meaning to the shell.
-u
All lower-case characters are converted to upper-case. The lower-case option, -l, is turned off.
-x
The given vnames are marked for automatic export to the environment  of subsequently-executed commands. Variables whose names contain a . cannot be exported.

The -i attribute cannot be specified along with -R, -L, -Z, or -f.

Using + rather than - causes these options to be turned off. If no vname  arguments are given, a list of vnames  (and optionally the values ) of the variables  is printed. (Using + rather than - keeps the values from being printed.) The -p option causes typeset followed by the option letters to be printed before each name rather than the names of the options. If any option other than -p is given, only those variables which have all of the given options are printed. Otherwise, the vnames and attributes  of all variables  are printed.

ulimit-HSacdfmnpstv  ] [  limit   ]
Set or display a resource limit. The available resource limits are listed below. Many systems do not support one or more of these limits. The limit for a specified resource is set when limit  is specified. The value of limit  can be a number in the unit specified below with each resource, or the value unlimited. The -H and -S options specify whether the hard limit or the soft limit for the given resource is set. A hard limit cannot be increased once it is set. A soft limit can be increased up to the value of the hard limit. If neither the H nor S options is specified, the limit applies to both. The current resource limit is printed when limit  is omitted. In this case, the soft limit is printed unless H is specified. When more than one resource is specified, then the limit name and unit is printed before the value.

-a
Lists all of the current resource limits.
-c
The number of 512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
-d
The number of K-bytes on the size of the data area.
-f
The number of 512-byte blocks on files that can be written by the current process or by child processes (files of any size may be read).
-m
The number of K-bytes on the size of physical memory.
-n
The number of file descriptors plus 1.
-p
The number of 512-byte blocks for pipe buffering.
-s
The number of K-bytes on the size of the stack area.
-t
The number of CPU seconds to be used by each process.
-v
The number of K-bytes for virtual memory.

If no option is given, -f is assumed.

umask-S  ] [  mask   ]
The user file-creation mask is set to mask  (see umask(2)). mask can either be an octal number or a symbolic value as described in chmod(1). If a symbolic value is given, the new umask value is the complement of the result of applying mask  to the complement of the previous umask value. If mask  is omitted, the current value of the mask is printed. The -S option causes the mode to be printed as a symbolic value. Otherwise, the mask is printed in octal.
§ unalias-a  ] name  . . .
The aliases given by the list of names are removed from the alias list. The -a option causes all the aliases to be unset.
§unset-fnv  ] vname  . . .
The variables given by the list of vnames are unassigned, i.e., their values and attributes are erased. Readonly variables cannot be unset. If the -f option is set, then the names refer to function  names. If the -v option is set, then the names refer to variable  names. The -f option overrides -v. If -n is set and name  is a name reference, then name  will be unset rather than the variable that it references. The default is equivalent to -v. Unsetting LINENO, MAILCHECK, OPTARG, OPTIND, RANDOM, SECONDS, TMOUT, and _ removes their special meaning even if they are subsequently assigned to.
waitjob  . . .  ]
Wait for the specified job and report its termination status. If job  is not given, then all currently active child processes are waited for. The exit status from this command is that of the last process waited for. See Jobs for a description of the format of job.
whence-afpv  ] name  . . .
For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a command name.
The -v option produces a more verbose report. The -f options skips the search for functions. The -p option does a path search for name  even if name is an alias, a function, or a reserved word. The -a option is similar to the -v option but causes all interpretations of the given name to be reported.
Invocation.
If the shell is invoked by exec(2), and the first character of argument zero ($0) is -, then the shell is assumed to be a login shell and commands are read from /etc/profile and then from either .profile in the current directory or $HOME/.profile, if either file exists. Next, for interactive shells, commands are read from the file named by performing parameter expansion, command substitution, and arithmetic substitution on the value of the environment variable ENV if the file exists. If the -s option is not present and arg  is, then a path search is performed on the first arg  to determine the name of the script to execute. The script arg  must have read permission and any setuid and setgid settings will be ignored. If the script is not found on the path, arg  is processed as if it named a built-in command or function. Commands are then read as described below; the following options are interpreted by the shell when it is invoked:

-c
If the -c option is present, then commands are read from the first arg. Any remaining arguments become positional parameters starting at 0.
-s
If the -s option is present or if no arguments remain, then commands are read from the standard input. Shell output, except for the output of the specialbuiltin-incommands  listed above, is written to file descriptor 2.
-i
If the -i option is present or if the shell input and output are attached to a terminal (as told by tcgetattr(2)), then this shell is interactive. In this case TERM is ignored (so that kill 0 does not kill an interactive shell) and INTR is caught and ignored (so that wait is interruptible). In all cases, QUIT is ignored by the shell.
-r
If the -r option is present, the shell is a restricted shell.
-D
A list of all double quoted strings that are preceded by a $ will be printed on standard output and the shell will exit. This set of strings will be subject to language translation when the locale is not C or POSIX. No commands will be executed.
-I filename 
The -R filename  option is used to generate a cross reference database that can be used by a separate utility to find definitions and references for variables and commands.

The remaining options and arguments are described under the set command above. An optional - as the first argument is ignored.

Rsh Only.
Rsh is used to set up login names and execution environments whose capabilities are more controlled than those of the standard shell. The actions of rsh  are identical to those of sh , except that the following are disallowed:

changing directory (see cd(1)),
setting or unsetting the value or attributes of SHELL, ENV, or PATH,
specifying path or command names containing /,
redirecting output (>, >|, <>, and >>).
adding or deleting built-in commands.

The restrictions above are enforced after .profile and the ENV files are interpreted.

When a command to be executed is found to be a shell procedure, rsh  invokes sh  to execute it. Thus, it is possible to provide to the end-user shell procedures that have access to the full power of the standard shell, while imposing a limited menu of commands; this scheme assumes that the end-user does not have write and execute permissions in the same directory.

The net effect of these rules is that the writer of the .profile has complete control over user actions, by performing guaranteed setup actions and leaving the user in an appropriate directory (probably not  the login directory).

The system administrator often sets up a directory of commands (e.g., /usr/rbin) that can be safely invoked by rsh.

EXIT STATUS

Errors detected by the shell, such as syntax errors, cause the shell to return a non-zero exit status. Otherwise, the shell returns the exit status of the last command executed (see also the exit command above). If the shell is being used non-interactively, then execution of the shell file is abandoned. Run time errors detected by the shell are reported by printing the command or function name and the error condition. If the line number that the error occurred on is greater than one, then the line number is also printed in square brackets ([]) after the command or function name.

FILES

/etc/passwd
/etc/profile
/etc/suid_profile
$HOME/.profile
/tmp/sh*
/dev/null

SEE ALSO

cat(1), cd(1), chmod(1), cut(1), echo(1), emacs(1), env(1), gmacs(1), newgrp(1), stty(1), test(1), umask(1), vi(1), dup(2), exec(2), fork(2), ioctl(2), lseek(2), paste(1), pathconf(2), pipe(2), sysconf(2), umask(2), ulimit(2), wait(2), rand(3), a.out(5), profile(5), environ(7).

Morris I. Bolsky and David G. Korn, The New KornShell Command and Programming Language, Prentice Hall, 1995.

POSIX - Part 2: Shell and Utilities, IEEE Std 1003.2-1992, ISO/IEC 9945-2, IEEE, 1993.

CAVEATS

If a command is executed, and then a command with the same name is installed in a directory in the search path before the directory where the original command was found, the shell will continue to exec  the original command. Use the -t option of the alias  command to correct this situation.

Some very old shell scripts contain a ^ as a synonym for the pipe character |.

Using the hist  built-in command within a compound command will cause the whole command to disappear from the history file.

The built-in command  . file  reads the whole file before any commands are executed. Therefore, alias and unalias commands in the file will not apply to any commands defined in the file.

Traps are not processed while a job is waiting for a foreground process. Thus, a trap on CHLD won't be executed until the foreground job terminates.

It is a good idea to leave a space after the comma operator in arithmetic expressions to prevent the comma from being interpreted as the decimal point character in certain locales.

March 06, 1997

kshWeb Home | ksh Applications, Tools, Utilities | Obtain Korn Shell | Shell News Groups | Publications | Links
Korn Shell Jobs | Tip-O-The-Day | Visitor Supplied Scripts | GuestBook | Registration and Download | MicroEMACS

 

For Information regarding this page, contact Dana French ( dfrench@juno.com )